RSS Feed

Category Archives: Technology

DIFFERENTIATION – STANDARDIZATION – ARTIFACTS

Objects are what matter. Only they carry the evidence that throughout the centuries something really happened among human beings.” — Claude Levi-Strauss

I was checking my “News Feed” on Facebook today. Someone had posted an interesting item, one of those pictures with pithy a pithy saying written across the top. This one showed a teacher at his desk with the wordscake bite, “Why do they want you to differentiate in your teaching when they standardize your testing?” I usually smile at these types of “railing against the wind” entries, but this one triggered a thought, “What if you could differentiate AND standardize at the same time?” Sort of like “Eating your cake and having it, too,” with better benefits………..

Artifacts naturally and immediately differentiate. This occurs because we are human. When a person is confronted with an object with which he/she is unfamiliar, the first thing that happens is to try and relate the object to something in one’s past. The mind immediately begins an analysis starting with, “What does this look like (that I have seen/used before)?” The natural response to an unfamiliar artifact is to reach out and touch it. This is also an attempt to relate to the object through examination. The mind attempts to resolve the problem of hand-drill“What is this?” through the senses: seeing, touching, smelling…. What this means for us as teachers is that, each student, when presented with an object he/she has not seen before, connects with it personally through his/her natural senses. Not only is this engagement at its best, but it is also differentiation at its finest. When we ask the questions, “What is this and why is it important to us right here, right now?”, we do not add the caveat(s), “Think about this only in English.”, or “Where is this found in a 5 bedroom house?”, or “Read the essay about this before you look at it.” Instead, we ask the open-ended question, and allow each student to begin his/her road to the answer through his/her level of experience. This first step, accession of prior knowledge, occurs at the level of “higher-order thinking.” It occurs in all languages and across all ethnicities. It contains no gender boundary, nor any reading or writing skill level. Yet, it reaches every student at a personal level. Artifacts naturally and immediately differentiate.

Artifacts lead directly to standardization. Every set of State Educational Standards contains the following goal, “the preparation of students for the 21st century through teaching them 21st century skills.” That set of skills most often is defined as, “analysis, synthesis, cooperative effort, decision-making and communication.” If our goal is truly the incorporation and refinement of these skills, then artifacts are the best, and easiest method to reach that goal successfully. Divide any class into groups (size of the group does not differentiationreally matter), and ask them our open-ended question, then step back and watch what happens. Students will examine the artifact. Each student will relate it to his/her own experience and communicate with the group his/her ideas. Discussion naturally occurs as differences of interpretation naturally arise from each individual’s personal experiences. Students create an argument (“I think it is….”) based on hands-on evidence (clues they have derived from their analysis). They begin to synthesize the evidence from all in the group (cooperative effort) and then make a decision based on a group consensus. The final step is to communicate their answer (decision) to the group, “We think this is “x”, because of “a, b, c.” The artifact-centered lesson has, in the simplest fashion, just practiced each student individually and collectively in the use of the very 21st century skills we all are required to teach. We have addressed our state standards and their goals. We have taught the standards without “teaching to the test.” We have prepared our students, regardless of grade level, reading, writing, or language ability, to think critically, make decisions based on evidence, and communicate those decisions effectively. Artifacts lead directly to improved performance in a “standardized environment.”

Artifact-centered lessons provide the opportunity to differentiate naturally and teach to standards effectively 21st depicteach and every time they are utilized. Artifacts are easily inserted into your current lesson plans in math, Language Arts, science, art, theatre, and Social Studies. You can quickly and easily create an artifact-centered lesson/exercise to introduce a unit/lesson, enhance an existing unit/lesson, or assess the information in a unit/lesson.The question, then, is, “Why are you not using artifacts in your classroom?” They are readily available at www.artifactsteach.com. Artifacts differentiate and standardize simultaneously because

ARTIFACTS TEACH

AT

Advertisements

BASEBALL – HOME RUNS – ARTIFACTS

I had only one superstition. I made sure to touch all the bases when I hit a home run.”   – Babe Ruth

Since this is baseball playoff season, I though we might couch this blog post in baseball terms. If we consider baseball fieldthat engaging students is the first of the steps in improving both student retention and student performance, then “Engagement” is most surely “First Base.” The next step, “Higher Order Thinking,” would be “Second Base,” while “Decision Making” would be “Third.” “Communication,” the result of completing each of the previous steps successfully, would bring us “Home.” So, how do artifacts make you a “home run hitter”?

Maintaining our baseball analogy, the “game” is to get students to incorporate the information you have for them in such a way that they understand it more completely, and that they retain it for a longer period of time. Artifacts are the perfect strategy to insure that your students get a “hit” each time they are “at bat.” Artifacts engage students immediately. When a person is presented with an item with which he or she is not familiar,first-base-1 he/she immediately attempts to relate it to something in his or her personal experience. That is engagement. Using an artifact immediately involves your students in the lesson you have created on a personal level.  You, and they, are on “First Base.”

The next step is to take students from “lower order thinking,” simple answers to when, where, who, to “higher order thinking,” analysis and synthesis. This is achieved through presenting the artifact and asking an open-ended question. Some of those questions might be, “What do you think this might be?” “Why do you think this item might be important in our study today?” Who do you think might have used this item, and for what second basepurpose?” These kinds of questions move the student beyond his/her personal experience to an examination of the item for hints, clues, or information that can assist in solving the problem you have presented. Further, students must gather the information and order it in some fashion (synthesis) in order to provide reasonable, logical answers. Analysis and synthesis are the higher order thinking skills that our State Standards require each of us to teach to our students. We have arrived at “Second Base.”

To get to “Third,” we need to have students review the information they have acquired through analysis, and come to a decision that provides a reasonable response to your open-ended questions. They must make choices Third baseconcerning which of the pieces of information they have gathered (evidence) provides the solutions to the challenges you have presented. We have arrived at “Third Base.”

To get “home,” students need to communicate their decisions about the artifact based on the evidence they have gathered. They can arrive at home base by sharing with a group, writing a response, or discussing and comparing their results with others. Regardless of the method of communication, the route to home base comes through engagement, analysis, synthesis, and decision-making; or, in baseball terms, touching “First”, “Second”, and “Third” to reach “Home.” Using an artifact provides a simple, and effective method for achieving the goals and objectives your State Standards require, each and every time.

Using artifacts in your classroom allows each student to improve his/her “batting average” (performance) through home runpracticing the skills necessary to be successful in the 21st century. Artifacts engage, allow for immediate analysis, and synthesis, and provide the basis for solid decision making. Communicating the results of an artifact-based exercise completes the circuit of effective pedagogy. Using artifacts in your pedagogical practice makes you a “home-run hitter” each and every time, because:

ARTIFACTS TEACH

 AT

DIGITAL NATIVES IN THE BLACKBOARD JUNGLE

Digital natives are bombarded with vast volumes of information in today’s electronic society, which calls for an even greater emphasis on critical thinking and research skills …”
– Timothy Van Slyke

 

Today’s students are different than those who were in school at the beginning of the 21st century. Today’s students are “digital natives.” There are several characteristics that define this group differently than those who have come before them:

1. They are both familiar and comfortable with digital devices and digital information. They have grown up withDanger Will computers and iPads, tablets and digital phones. “Android” certainly means  something very different to them than it did to the “Danger, Will Robinson” generation.

2. They are accustomed to going online to find answers to their questions. Ask them something they do not know and they “Google-It” rather than refer to dictionaries, encyclopedias or textbooks. This makes good sense, since more information is available to this generation on line than has ever been available via other media at any time.

3. Through the evolution of gaming, they have learned to jump into an unfamiliar environment and try different solutions until one works. They see failure as a learning experience; as just another piece of knowledge gained. As my grandson says while playing Skylanders Giants, “Well, that didn’t work. Let’s try this!”

4. Gaming has also molded them in other ways. They are accustomed to solving problems, enjoy challenges and expect recognition for their successes. They receive instant rewards for completing tasks during a game. They rewardsgather jewels, objects, weapons, and special powers as they work their way through levels in a game. Most games provide positive reinforcement in the form of electronic hurrahs and applause combined with virtual fireworks and congratulations.

5. While it seems as if they are always working alone, they enjoy collaboration; another product of the digital world of Skype, FaceTime, Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, Instagram and other social media sites. They are not alone, they are “connected” with others differently than we were at their age.

6. Today’s teenagers spend approximately eight hours per day directly engaged with technology. Because they “multi-task” using several technologies at once, they cram almost eleven hours of media time into their daily regimen.

Each student carries most of these characteristics into your classroom each day. Are you employing the kind of technologies in your pedagogy that tap into these skills and characteristics? Digital natives respond to digital information, digital presentations, and digital challenges. CD’s, DVD’s, and PowerPoints are from another PPworld. They belong in the realm of the “Blackboard Jungle.”  They are passive, dull and lack the challenges that stimulate digital natives. If you want to engage the digital natives in your classroom, you need to do so with the tools that match their interests and their skills.

Digital artifacts engage digital natives immediately. When a student can manipulate an artifact in a 360 degree plane, examine it through magnification, measure its length and width, he/she is directly engaged in his/her own study. They are using the skills they have developed outside the classroom, to learn inside the classroom.

 

What digital natives lack is the ability to sort and categorize the vast amounts of information that they encounter daily. Studying digital artifacts teaches analysis, synthesis, communication, collaboration, and critical thinkingdecision-making. Employed correctly, digital artifacts teach students to base their conclusions on evidence and to evaluate others conclusions in the same fashion. In other words, digital artifacts teach the 21st century skills that today’s digital natives need in order to be successful throughout their lives.

Lead your students out of the “Blackboard Jungle” of ancient technologies and employ the 21st century technologies that teach 21st century skills. Employ digital artifacts because:

ARTIFACTS TEACH

AT

LET’S GET ENGAGED V: PARTNERS

“The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.”   – William Arthur Ward

Engaging students in learning means, first and foremost, that today’s classrooms must change. Our previous posts about engagement stress some of the pedagogical and technical changes that should occur in order to create the Number one teacherclassroom environment that fosters 21st century learning. It is now time to address the teacher in the room. As we begin this discussion, let’s make one thing perfectly clear: THE TEACHER  IS THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR IN ANY CLASSROOM, ANYWHERE. Technology cannot replace teachers. The latest trends cannot replace teachers. No person, place, gadget, program or pedagogy can have greater effect on a student than an effective teacher. In order to engage students effectively, the role of the teacher in today’s classrooms must evolve from purveyor of knowledge to partner in learning,

In the 21st century, teachers must be partners in learning. This does not mean that teachers are “buddies,” “pals,” or  “friends” with students. A partner is one who shares in the planning or execution of an event, couple dancingprogram or life situation. I like the image of a dance partner for teachers. Partners in a dance work in unison to the same rhythm and beat. One leads, but both are vital to the success of the outcome. It is a good image to keep in mind as we discuss the changing role of teachers.

Teachers as effective partners in learning must possess certain characteristics. First and foremost, they must be experts in their disciplines. Teachers must stay abreast of the newest information and research. Maintaining expertise allows teachers to monitor students’ progress and provide positive feedback. Further, a highly knowledgeable teacher can guide students along their own paths to understanding, whether that is at a surface level or at more interpretive or innovative depth . Secondly, teacher-partners establish pedagogy that prepares students how effective teacherto learn beyond the classroom. Open-ended questioning, emphasis on problem-solving, practice in collaboration and communication, and required decision-making are essential elements of a teacher-partner’s lessons. Lastly, teacher-partners maintain a positive classroom disciplinary climate in which respect for all participants, an expectation of challenging and rigorous activities, and the maintenance of a safe place to explore characterize every class session. Research has shown that students, regardless of grade level, are 1.5 times more likely to be more interested, motivated and responsive to instruction when a positive disciplinary environment is present. When these three characteristics are combined, the teacher casts aside the “sage on the stage” role, moves beyond the “guide on the side” stage, to become the teacher-partner,  an active and integral part of student-centered learning.

“All of this sounds very altruistic and impossible in my classroom today,” you say. It is not. There are programs that allow you to begin the shift to teacher-partner immediately. One of those is Artifacts Teach (www.artifactsteach.com) This easy-t0-use web tool contains no lesson plans. Instead, the site provides the tools to custom design each lesson. Artifacts naturally lend themselves to collaborative analysis, skilled communication, and evidence-based decision-making. Artifacts Teach can start you down the road to becoming an effective teacher-partner in less time than it takes to write your next standardized lesson plan, and to distribute the text-based worksheets.

AT

LET’S GET ENGAGED IV: CLEAR THE AIR

“I never teach my pupils, I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn.”
                                                                                                                      Albert Einstein

Every teacher wants his/her students to be successful. In nearly thirty years of teaching and mentoring, I have yet to encounter a teacher who wants his/her students to fail. I believe it is the principal reason we all became teachers in the first place. We know the joy of learning and want others to experience the same excitement and pleasure we feel as we learn. Learning occurs best in a positive, supportive environment. The definition of that setting has changed radically over the last 20 years.

When I began my career, we were taught the basics of lesson planning, classroom management, and assessment. Our pedagogy instructors concentrated on teaching us to create interesting and informative lectures combined with assigned textbook readings, and summative assessments that tested retention of the material presented. Basically, we were taught to disseminate information and then test to find out how much sage on stageour students had retained. For its time, the late ’60s and early ’70s, this worked pretty well. High school diplomas and Bachelor’s degrees indicated that the holder possessed a standard level of knowledge and competency. Extensive research was reserved for those who would go on to graduate school. Then, along came Bill Gates and Steve Jobs and the creators of the Internet, and everything changed….. except for classroom practices.

Students today enter our classrooms with the capability of finding information instantaneously. Using phones, tablets and/or laptops, they can access not only basic information, but also critiques, reviews, extensive research and opposing ideas concerning just about any topic. In addition, today’s employers want employees who can ttcskillswork effectively in the 21st century workplace. Thinking critically, working collaboratively, synthesizing large amounts of information into understandable conclusions, and communicating those decisions effectively are the skills necessary in be successful today and tomorrow. Our job as teachers necessitates that we create the classroom conditions and the instructional pedagogy that teaches and supports those 21st century skills.

Let’s clear the air about classroom instruction. Textbooks are on the way out. They are either too generic, too biased, or too outdated to be of much use. Students don’t read them, preferring to find out the “facts” from sources on the Internet. Knowing “2 times 2 equals 4” is less important than understanding how many different ways we can get “4.” Memorizing the Table of Elements is less important than understanding atomic theory and how it affects matter and energy. It is the substance of learning – how, why, to what affect, and in what way – that our students need to understand, and that our classrooms need to foster. So, what can we do? Here are two very important elements for your success and that of your students:

1. Create a classroom environment that allows for extensive risk taking.

2. Maintain the highest levels of expectation for every student

Regarding risk taking, make sure from the first day of class that you create an accepting and open atmosphere that treats mistakes as steps to learning.This does not mean that every answer is correct, or even acceptable. It does mean that every answer should be supported with evidence. “I believe the answer is  _____, BECAUSE ______” works for Kindergarteners as well as college seniors. This approach allows for the greatest risk-taking. If the answer misses the mark, it is the process of risk-takingcoming to the conclusion that is in error, not the student. As the teacher, you can point out the missing link in the cause and effect, and allow the student to revisit the question, the evidence and the answer. This works for science, math and Social Studies equally well. It works in PE and Choir and chemistry and English composition. But, it only works if you establish the openness in your classroom that allows for mistakes. You must establish an atmosphere of support for students’ ideas, efforts and conclusions. Point out the steps in the process that resulted in a “wrong answer” rather than pointing out that the student was wrong. You are not rewarding incorrect answers as the student still needs to return to the process until the expected result is achieved.

Regarding high levels of expectation, the literature concerning expectations and achievement convincingly demonstrates that students rise to meet the levels of expectation that are established and consistently applied. This means that the burden is on you, the teacher, not only to establish and maintain the expectations, but also thigh expectationso demonstrate how those expectations can be achieved. Base your instruction on evidence supported conclusions. Show students how to assemble arguments and communicate ideas. Ask them for opinions and conclusions drawn from materials they have just read or studied. Will every student perform at the same level? The answer to that question is “no.” If they did, we wouldn’t need teachers, would we? You are the professional. You have been trained to identify the skills and the needs of each student. Use what you know to set the bar high for each student based on his/her potential. You already “differentiate,” make sure that your adjustments are maintaining your expectations, not diluting them. At the end of the year, look back on your instruction and know that you maximized the potential of every individual in your classroom. Nothing beats that…. nothing.

AT

LET’S GET ENGAGED III: TECHNOLOGY-RICH ENVIRONMENTS

When I was teaching at the University of Northern Colorado, the department chair established a policy of collecting electronic devices if students were found using them in class. I don’t know about anyone else at the acp5_logotime, but I never collected a single device, even when I knew that students were texting friends or playing games instead of listening attentively to my well-crafted lectures. It seemed a little presumptuous to take someone’s property – worth quite a bit of money – rather arbitrarily. Today, such a policy would never be discussed in a staff meeting nor implemented in the classroom. The difference between then and now is the proliferation of good, easy-to-use programs that assist in the learning process. Today’s world is one of technology-rich environments that support lessons, lectures, assignments and research.

The power and capability of hand-held devices is gradually changing the 21st century classroom. Today’s phones are capable of connecting with the internet from just about anywhere. The Internet contains an abundance of websites designed to assist students in researching topics from dinosaurs to dinner menus and ancient civilizations to algebra. There are even websites that vett other discipline-specific websites and offer links to the “best of the discipline.” E-books provide access to great literature for students of all grades. On-line Apple-iPhone-5steaching sites, Zahn Academy for instance, offer students a chance to practice and learn math, science, history and a variety of other subjects. On top of all of this, programs exist that allow students to create digital stories, add music to their presentations and draw material from across the world. PowerPoints are still important, but the variety of presentation programs allows students with skills in music, poetry, math and science to customize their presentations in order to demonstrate their understanding of lessons and assignments. There are “1 on 1” schools in which every student has an iPad or notebook assigned to them. There are “BYOD” (Bring Your Own Device) schools in which every student is required to bring a hand-held device they will use each day. We have gone from “Zero Tolerance” for hand-held devices to “How can I best use the Internet to help my students learn?”

In part, this question can only be answered by each teacher for each class. However, there are some items that everyone should consider before jumping into technology-centered learning. The first of those is that today’s students are “computer proficient” not “computer literate.” In other words, they can manipulate the literacytechnology very easily, are not afraid of blowing up the machine by making a mistake, and find the activity interesting. What they lack, and this is the most important part, is the ability to sort through all of the material that they encounter as they search. They know how to find “stuff,” they don’t know how to think critically about the material presented to them, or ask the appropriate questions, or determine the quality of the research that supports the information. They can find it. They don’t know how to deal with it. As teachers, we need to use technology to insure that our students are computer literate.

The second consideration for technology-centered teaching is that social media is not a teaching tool. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc., are designed for connecting people not disseminating accurate information. Social media did not start the “Spring Revolutions” that brought down governments in the Middle East. Social media helped those in opposition organize groups and stay in touch when curfews were established and protest bans 20-social-media-iconswere in force. The seeds of those rebellions were sown over decades of inequality, corruption, and tyranny. Social media facilitated the spread of instructions, it did not cause anything. Mark Zucherberg’s technology facilitates connections, but it is not in and of itself content. Social media can be useful in your classroom when communicating with students about assignments, or in answering questions when school is not in session, but it teaches nothing.

Lastly, teachers should focus on the use of technology, not the technology itself. Use technology to expand your students’ world. Have them find information on both sides of issues regardless of your discipline. Utilize comparison and contrast as a standard pedagogy. Open the door to the entire world of thinkers, teachers, and ist2_2663047-scales-of-justiceother students and help them think critically about what they find. Create your assignments with open-ended questions such as, “Why do you think that scientists originally rejected the Theory of Evolution?”, or “In what ways does Dr. Zhivago symbolize the Russian Empire in Pasternak’s novel?”, and then provide your students vetted websites that offer opposing views. Allow them to expand their research on their own. Use the technology as it was intended, to expand the realm of ideas.

Artifacts open the door to critical thinking, analysis, synthesis, communications and decision-making. On-line artifacts that students can manipulate as if they were holding the item in their hands, are an excellent example of the proper use of technology in the classroom. Technology overcomes the historic difficulties of using artifacts: their fragile nature, the difficulty in locating them, the artsexpense of purchasing them, the cumbersome nature of carrying them from class to class, and then finally storing them. Artifacts Teach (www.artifactsteach.com), a new web tool for K-16 teachers, is the perfect example of making your classroom a technology rich environment. They provide the artifacts, the lesson planning tools, suggestions for use across four disciplines, and the initial questions to get students started. At Artifacts Teach, technology combines with pedagogy to create a truly 21st century learning environment.

 

AT